Category Archives: Education

Improving Quality of Care Using a Small Systems Approach

At tertiary hospitals around the world, a team-centered systems approach has evolved to help physicians provide more evidence-based care to improve patient outcomes. A major challenge toward implementing systems change is the sheer size and scope of any such organization.

Using a unique alternative approach, Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology has begun two quality initiatives. The first places the power to define and enact systematic changes to care within each of its six smaller subdivisions (see Text Box for initiatives overview), led by Matthew F. Davies, M.D., FACOG, chief of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery, and vice chair of quality and patient safety. A key feature of the program focuses on small teams as drivers of change. Dr. Davies states, “I’ve been impressed by how many great ideas for change have come out of the small group approach; with a few people acting as drivers, there is very little bureaucratic inertia and teams can make changes to patient care in a relatively short period of time.” Dr. Davies and each quality team member gathers patient outcomes data to evaluate the impact of each quality initiative. The teams also define precise timelines for examining the impact of process. Continue reading

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Dr. MILK® Supports Physician Moms, Recognizes Unique Challenges to Breastfeeding in the Health Care Work Place

Dr. M.I.L.K. Mentoring ClubThe transition back to work can spell trouble for continued breastfeeding among physician moms.¹ In October 2014, Penn State Hershey Medical Center started one of only four United States’ chapters of Dr. MILK (Mothers Interested in Lactation Knowledge), a monthly support group for breastfeeding moms who are also physicians, mid-level providers, residents, or medical students.

Jointly led by two Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology physicians, Nicole Hackman, M.D., and Sarah Louise Juza, M.D., the goal is to make breastfeeding a positive experience for these moms so they can promote it whole-heartedly with their own patients. Kerri Brackney, M.D., FACOG, who started and formerly led the program, points out, “There is very little formal medical education around breastfeeding. Most physicians know that breastfeeding is good for babies and moms. What they don’t realize is how physically and emotionally challenging breastfeeding can be. When physician moms choose to breastfeed, they have a unique opportunity to more effectively help their patients be successful too.” Continue reading

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When is Robotic Minimally Invasive Surgery the Approach of Choice?

RoboticSurgeryEquipmentA 42 year-old woman presents in the outpatient obstetrics and gynecology clinic with severe, uncontrolled pelvic pain, painful bowel movements, and constipation. The patient has a history of stage IV endometriosis and had conceived via in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The patient now desires definitive therapy; she has completed childbearing and she had unsuccessful medical management of her symptoms with oral contraceptives and a progestin IUD. Recent ultrasound revealed a large endometrioma in the right ovary. Colonoscopy results indicated deep endometriosis of the sigmoid colon.

Stephanie Estes, M.D., of Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology says, “In complex cases like this, a minimally invasive surgical procedure using robotic technology in a single operation offers the best odds for success, both procedurally and with a good recovery. A gynecologic surgeon would begin with a hysterectomy, and then a colorectal surgeon would resect the affected portion of sigmoid colon en bloc, to complete the procedure.” Estes continues, “With the robotic surgical tools we use, there is definitely better dexterity and enhanced 3D visualization of tissue and organs, compared to an open abdominal approach. This minimally invasive approach is really key for complex cases with widespread pathology, to avoid injury to delicate surrounding tissues.” Continue reading

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Preclinical Findings Lay the Groundwork for Translational Research Program in Cervical Cancer

“Cervical cancers bear a viral antigen fingerprint that can serve as a target for radioimmunotherapy [RIT] that specifically destroys malignant tumor cells,” says Rebecca Phaëton, M.D., of Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology. More than 95 percent of human cervical cancers express human papilloma virus (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7 (E=early transformation), which herald the beginning of malignant growth sequences. E6 and E7 are necessary for the malignant transformation and without their presence HPV would be incapable of being cancerogenic. In vitro and in vivo, proliferation of human cervical cancer cells reliably expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins is significantly inhibited by C1P5, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAB) against E6.¹ Phaëton’s research, conducted with colleagues while a fellow at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore, New York, demonstrated the ability of twenty μCi of the beta-emitting 188Rhenium-labeled C1P5 (i.p.) to selectively accumulate within HPV-16 positive human cervical cancer tumor cells in adult mice and to suppress tumor growth for up to twenty days after treatment.2,3 “Rhenium-labeled C1P5 accumulated in the cervical cancer cells of the mice, with limited to no accumulation in the liver, kidneys, and bone marrow. There was no sign of neutropenia in any of the subjects,” reports Phaëton. As shown in the diagram below, cross-linking C1P5, which targets intranuclear E6 with the beta-emitting 188Rhenium creates a chain reaction of cell death that may allow treatment to penetrate deep within the tumor. Continue reading

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Letrozole: New Oral Fertility Option for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Letrozole: New Oral Fertility Option for Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Data were analyzed based on the intent-to-treat population. P values were calculated with the use of the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical data.

In the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II)¹ clinical trial, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) demonstrated significantly greater rates of ovulation, conception, pregnancy, and live birth, compared with the selective estrogen receptor modulator clomiphene citrate (Clomid) when given for up to five menstrual cycles in women with PCOS (Figure). The main findings of PPCOS II were published in the New England Journal of Medicine last summer (2014).¹ The trial, initiated and led by Richard Legro, M.D., of Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology, sought to identify and compare safer, more cost-effective, oral infertility treatments that could be used as first-line options for women with PCOS. Both treatments were fairly well tolerated; the most common adverse events were hot flushes (clomiphene), dizziness, and fatigue (letrozole). Continue reading

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Group Prenatal Care: Centering Pregnancy

Most pregnant women receive one-on-one prenatal care from their OB provider, but a group-care model has shown increasing promise and is becoming more widely available. Danielle Hazard, M.D., of Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology, explains: “We offer a group prenatal care program called Centering Pregnancy. This model integrates three important components of care: health assessment, education, and support. During the group sessions, ten to twelve pregnant patients, all due around the same time, participate in a facilitated discussion focused on health-promoting behaviors, complete their standard physical health assessments, and develop a support network with other group members. The group discussions provide a dynamic environment for learning and sharing that is impossible to create in a one-on-one encounter.”

The group-centered care approach, developed by midwife and nurse, Sharon Schindler Rising in the 1990s, is currently supported by the nonprofit Centering Healthcare Institute (CHI), which trains physicians to implement standardized group-based prenatal care programs throughout the United States (centeringhealthcare.org).

Initiated at Penn State Hershey in 2009, the Centering Pregnancy program gained CHI site approval in 2011, and is among only six sites in Pennsylvania. Continue reading

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Journal Clubs That Go Beyond Discussing the “Key Take-Aways,” Have Global Impact

If you’ve ever sat through a journal club meeting where the article headlines were just re-hashed, you’re not alone. Over time, journal clubs tend to get stale. Pitfalls, like choosing from a limited range of topics, and having only two or three people who are consistently willing to rotate leading discussions, are common.

Yet the need for clinicians to stay abreast of research, technical advancements, and controversial professional issues is a constant which can’t be fulfilled by attending annual meetings.

William C. Dodson, M.D., of Penn State Hershey Obstetrics and Gynecology, has taken on the challenge of making journal clubs a key part of ongoing, meaningful medical education worldwide. In 2009, as part of Dodson’s longtime leadership role with Obstetrics and Gynecology (i.e. the Green Journal), he and Cathy Spong, M.D., from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), began to create a monthly journal club feature aimed at enhancing the journal club experience (journals.lww.com/greenjournal). “Each month, for two articles from the current issue, we develop facilitator questions intended to lead club members to critically weigh the most salient points of each manuscript. It’s like providing a study guide for club facilitators, so even if they aren’t experts on a given topic or technique, they can lead discussion.” Continue reading

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Resident Training Program Emphasizes Minimally Invasive Hysterectomies: Achieving a New Standard of Patient Care

A residency training program that stresses minimally invasive hysterectomies is proving to be not only feasible, but a highly effective strategy for providing valuable surgeon training and improving patient outcomes. As leaders of Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center’s Division of Urogynecology and Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Gerald Harkins, M.D., and his colleague Matthew Davies, M.D., have closely tracked resident performance and patient outcomes. At the September 2013 Minimally Invasive Surgery Week and Endo Expo in Reston, VA, Harkins and his colleagues presented the first full twelve months of outcomes data from the training program. Among 537 patients who underwent hysterectomies for benign indications including abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, fibroids, endometriosis, and prolapse/incontinence in a single year, 96 percent underwent minimally invasive surgery, either with vaginal or laparoscopic approach with a resident as the lead surgeon or the first assist, explained Harkins in an interview. Training new physicians and surgeons to provide up-to-date standards of care, including the use of minimally invasive techniques and robotic surgery, is a major challenge facing the health care field today. “Most physicians with established practices don’t have the necessary training in minimally invasive techniques, and so despite evidence that such techniques are safer and more cost-effective,1 60 percent of hysterectomies are still open procedures,” says Harkins. Recent nationwide OB/GYN residency training data suggest most U.S. trainees continue to lack needed minimally invasive surgical experience, with the average surgical resident completing sixty-four abdominal, eighteen vaginal, and twenty-three laparoscopic hysterectomies during training.2

Two physicians perfom minimally invasive surgery in a Penn State Hershey operating room.

Kristin Riley, M.D., fellow, assists Gerald Harkins, M.D. during minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. As part of its residency training program, residents act as lead surgeon or as first assist in 96 percent of the minimally invasive hysterectomy procedures at Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

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